Urdu Zaban Ki Tareekh Pdf Free: A Comprehensive Guide to the History of Urdu Language
Urdu is one of the most widely spoken languages in the world, with over 170 million native speakers and more than 100 million second-language speakers. It is the official language of Pakistan and one of the 22 official languages of India. Urdu is also spoken in many other countries, such as Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Saudi Arabia, UAE, UK, USA, and Canada.
But how did Urdu develop as a language? What are its origins, influences, and characteristics? How did it evolve over time and across regions? And where can you find reliable and authentic sources to learn more about its history?
If you are interested in these questions, then you have come to the right place. In this article, we will provide you with a comprehensive guide to the history of Urdu language, and also show you how you can download a free PDF book on this topic.
What is Urdu?
Urdu is a member of the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family. It is closely related to Hindi, Punjabi, Sindhi, Gujarati, and other languages spoken in the Indian subcontinent. Urdu is written in a modified form of the Persian alphabet, which is derived from the Arabic script. Urdu is also influenced by Persian, Arabic, Turkish, Sanskrit, and other languages.
Urdu is known for its rich and diverse literature, which includes poetry, prose, drama, fiction, non-fiction, and religious texts. Some of the most famous Urdu writers are Mirza Ghalib, Allama Iqbal, Faiz Ahmed Faiz, Saadat Hasan Manto, Ismat Chughtai, and Ahmed Faraz.
The Origins of Urdu
The history of Urdu can be traced back to the 8th century CE, when the Arab invaders brought Islam and Arabic language to the Indian subcontinent. The interaction between the local languages and Arabic led to the emergence of various dialects that were collectively called Hindavi or Dehlavi. These dialects were spoken in different regions of northern India, especially around Delhi.
In the 13th century CE, the Mongol invasions brought Persian and Turkish speakers to India. They established the Delhi Sultanate and later the Mughal Empire. The court language of these dynasties was Persian, which had a profound impact on Hindavi. The fusion of Hindavi with Persian and Turkish gave rise to a new language that was called Rekhta or Zaban-e-Urdu-e-Mualla (the language of the exalted city).
Rekhta or Urdu was initially used as a lingua franca among the soldiers and traders of different backgrounds. It gradually spread to other domains of society and culture. It became a medium of poetry and literature under the patronage of the Mughal emperors and nobles. It also became a symbol of identity and resistance for the Muslims of India.
The Development of Urdu
The history of Urdu can be divided into four periods: Old Urdu (8th-13th centuries CE), Classical Urdu (14th-18th centuries CE), Modern Urdu (19th-20th centuries CE), and Contemporary Urdu (21st century CE).
Old Urdu was mainly influenced by Arabic and Sanskrit. It had a simple grammar and vocabulary. It was mostly used for oral communication and religious purposes.
Classical Urdu was mainly influenced by Persian and Turkish. It had a complex grammar and vocabulary. It was mostly used for literary and artistic expression. It reached its peak during the Mughal era.
Modern Urdu was mainly influenced by English and Hindi. It had a simplified grammar and vocabulary. It was mostly used for education and journalism. It emerged during the British colonial rule and the Indian independence movement.
Contemporary Urdu is mainly influenced by globalization and technology. It has a dynamic grammar and vocabulary. It is mostly used for entertainment and social media. It reflects the diversity and creativity of the current generation.
The Sources of Urdu
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